Module I : Renaissance and freedom movement
Module II: General Knowledge and current affairs
Module III: Methodology of teaching the subject
♦ History/conceptual development. Need and Significance, Meaning Nature
and Scope of the Subject.
♦ Correlation with other subjects and life situations.
♦ Aims, Objectives, and Values of Teaching - Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives - Old and revised
♦ Pedagogic analysis- Need, Significance and Principles.
♦ Planning of instruction at Secondary level- Need and importance.
Psychological bases of Teaching the subject - Implications of Piaget,
Bruner, Gagne, Vygotsky, Ausubel and Gardener - Individual difference,
Motivation, Maxims of teaching.
♦ Methods and Strategies of teaching the subject- Models of Teaching,
Techniques of individualising instruction.
♦ Curriculum - Definition, Principles, Modern trends and organizational
approaches, Curriculum reforms - NCF/KCF.
♦ Instructional resources- Laboratory, Library, Club, Museum- Visual and
Audio-Visual aids - Community based resources - e-resources - Text
book, Work book and Hand book.
♦ Assessment; Evaluation- Concepts, Purpose, Types, Principles,
Modern techniques - CCE and Grading- Tools and techniques -
Qualities of a good test - Types of test items- Evaluation of projects,
Seminars and Assignments - Achievement test, Diagnostic test –
Construction, Characteristics, interpretation and remediation.
♦ Teacher - Qualities and Competencies - different roles - Personal
Qualities - Essential teaching skills - Microteaching - Action research.
1. Definitions of History
2. Bronze Age Civilizations – Egyptian, Mesopotomian, Harappan
3. Graeco-Roman Civilizations
4. Renaissance, Reformation, Geographical discoveries.
5. Modern Revolutions – English, French, Russian Revolutions and
6. World Wars – League of Nations and United Nations
1. Vedic Age, Jainism and Buddhism.
2. Mauryas and Guptas.
3. State and Society in medieval India – Sultanate, Mughal and Vijayanagar.
4. Advent of Europeans – Birth and Growth of British power in India –
Impact of Colonialism.
5. Emergence of Nationalism – Struggle for Freedom – Partition of India.
6. Sources of Kerala History – Jainism and Buddhism in Kerala.
7. Kerala in the Sangam Age – Perumals of Mahodayapuram – Bhakti
8. Rise of Modern Travancore – Resistance against Colonialism – Pazhassi
Raja, Velu Thambi and Paliyathachan.
9. Renaissance in Kerala – Social and Religious reform movements.
10. National Movement in Kerala – Aikya Kerala Movement – Formation of
Module III: Economic Theory, Banking and Tools of Analysis
Issues and Concepts in Economics – Theories of Consumer Behaviour:
Cardinal and Ordinal Approaches – Elasticity of Demand – Production and
Cost Functions –National Income Concepts – Sectoral Composition of GDP –
– Theories of International Trade: Absolute cost Advantage – Comparative
Cost Advantage – Commercial banks and Central bank: Role and Functions.
Application of measures of Central Values, Dispersion and simple
Correlation in economics
Module IV: Indian economy, Development Economics, Public
Finance and Kerala Economy
Overview of Indian economy – Economic Planning – Five Year Pans in
India- Major Development Issues: Poverty, inequality, unemployment –
Concepts of Human Development: Measurement of Development – PQLI,
HDI – Concept of sustainable development – Structure of Taxes and
Expenditure of the Government – Concepts of Federal Finance –
Development Experience of Kerala – Demographic transition, gender issues,
migration and urbanization.
1. Meaning, importance and approaches to the study of Political Science
2. Major concepts in Political Science- state, civil society, sovereignty
3. Political culture, political socialization
4. Federalism, rule of law, judicial review, Judicial activism,
5. Role of Political parties and pressure groups
6. Democracy- meaning and features - Direct and Indirect democracy -
Parliamentary and Presidential systems
7. Indian political system: salient features of the Indian Constitution,
Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy. Working
of Union and State Governments: A brief analysis
8. Human Rights- Meaning and importance, Universal Declaration of
1. International Politics and Organizations. Diplomacy, Foreign Policy,
Collective Security, Disarmament and Arms Control. UNO-Principal
organs and functions. New trends: Globalization, WTO.
2. Public Administration. Principles of Organization, Bureaucracy: merits
and demerits, New Public Administration, New Public Management,
Development Administration, Significance of Local Self Government
Institutions in India.
3. Political Thinkers. Plato, J S Mill, Aristotle, Rousseau, Marx, Gramsci
and Gandhiji: Major contributions
Module VII – Physical Geography
Solar System and Planets – latitudes and longitudes – time – seasons - maps, map
scales – basics of remote – structure of the earth – continents and oceans –
continental drift – plate tectonics – rocks – weathering and erosion – fluvial, glacial,
Aeolian, landforms. Composition and structure of atmosphere – temperature and their
distribution – pressure belts, winds – condensation and precipitation – Major oceans
and their characteristics – tides and currents.
Module VIII – Human and Regional Geography
Population – World population distribution, growth – migration – settlements – rural
and urban – climatic regions of the world – Types of agriculture in the world -
distribution of iron ore and coal in the world– distribution of industries in the world –
iron and steel – cotton textiles. Physiography of India – drainage – climate – soils –
forests – Distribution, growth and density of population in India - Distribution of rice,
wheat, cotton and sugar cane in India. Irrigation and multipurpose projects of India.
Distribution of iron ore, coal, bauxite, mica, petroleum and atomic minerals – nonconventional
energy resources – Distribution of iron and steel, textiles, and agro based
industries in India – Transport in India – Geography of Kerala