HSA Natural Science


Module I : Renaissance and freedom movement
Module II: General Knowledge and current affairs
Module III: Methodology of teaching the subject

♦ History/conceptual development. Need and Significance, Meaning Nature and
Scope of the Subject.
♦ Correlation with other subjects and life situations.
♦ Aims, Objectives, and Values of Teaching - Taxonomy of Educational Objectives - Old
and revised
♦ Pedagogic analysis- Need, Significance and Principles.
♦ Planning of instruction at Secondary level- Need and importance. Psychological bases
of Teaching the subject - Implications of Piaget, Bruner, Gagne, Vygotsky, Ausubel and
Gardener - Individual difference, Motivation, Maxims of teaching.
♦ Methods and Strategies of teaching the subject- Models of Teaching, Techniques of
individualising instruction.
♦ Curriculum - Definition, Principles, Modern trends and organizational approaches,
Curriculum reforms - NCF/KCF.
♦ Instructional resources- Laboratory, Library, Club, Museum- Visual and Audio-Visual
aids - Community based resources - e-resources - Text book, Work book and Hand book.
♦ Assessment; Evaluation- Concepts, Purpose, Types, Principles, Modern techniques -
CCE and Grading- Tools and techniques - Qualities of a good test - Types of test items-
Evaluation of projects, Seminars and Assignments - Achievement test, Diagnostic test –
Construction, Characteristics, interpretation and remediation.
♦ Teacher - Qualities and Competencies - different roles - Personal Qualities - Essential
teaching skills - Microteaching - Action research.


Module - I
I Whittaker's five Kingdom Classification:
Kingdom Protista - Salient features
Parasitic Protozoans
e.g. Entamoeba histolytica, }
Trypanosoma gambiense, }
Plasmodium vivax }
Morphology, Life history, Pathogenicity
Prophylactic measures
Kingdom Animalia
Levels of organization - Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Coelom, Symmetry
Phylum Non-Chordata :
Phylum Coelenterata
General characters
Classes: (1) Hydrozoa e.g. Obelia
(2) Scyphozoa e.g. Aurelia
(3) Anthozoa e.g. Sea anemone
Polymorphism in Coelenterata
Phylum Platyhelminthes:-
General characters
Classes (1) Turbellaria e.g. Planaria
(2) Trematoda e.g. Fasciola
(3) Cestoda e.g. Taenia solium
Phylum Nematoda :
General characters
e.g. Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Enterobius, Wuchereria
Phylum Annelida
General characters
Classes (1) Polychaeta e.g. Arenicola
(2) Oligochaeta e.g. Nereis
(3) Hirudinea e.g. Hirudinaria
Vermiculture (brief account)
: 2 :
Phylum Arthropoda
General characters
Classes (1) Crustacea e.g. Penaeus
(2) Insecta e.g. Honey bee
(3) Merostomata e.g. Limulus
(4) Myriapoda e.g. Centepede
Phylum Onychophora
Peripatus – Affinities, Distribution
Social Organization : Honey bee (mention caste system)
Economic Importance : Sericulture.
Phylum Mollusca
General characters
Classes (1) Amphineura e.g. Chiton
(2) Bivalvia e.g. Perna
(3) Scaphopoda e.g. Dentalium
(4) Gastropoda e.g. Pila
(5) Cephalopoda e.g. Sepia
Economic Importance : Pearl culture
Classes: (1) Asteroidea e.g. Asterias
(2) Ophiuroidea e.g. Ophiothrix
(3) Echinoidea e.g. Echinus
(4) Holothuroidea e.g. Sea cucumber
(5) Crinoidea eg. Sea lily (Antedon)
General characters
Sub phyla (1) Urochordata : e.g. Ascidia
(2) Cephalochordata e.g. Amphioxus
(3) Vertebrata . General characters.
Divisions (1) Agnatha – General character e.g. Petromyzon
(2) Gnathostomata - General characters.
: 3 :
Superclass :
(1) Pisces . General characters, Classification
Class (1) Chondrichthyes e.g. Scoliodon
Class (2) Osteichthyes e.g. Sardinella
(2) Tetrapoda Salient features/ General characters.
Classes : (1) Amphibia : General characters
Orders (1) Urodela : e.g. Ambystoma
(2) Aneura : e.g. Hyla, Bufo
(3) Apoda : e.g. Ichthyophis
(2) Reptilia : General characters,
Common examples: Calotes
Identification of venomous and non-venomous snakes.
(3) Aves : General Characters
Common examples: Emu, Pavo
Migration of Birds
(4) Mammalia : General characters
Common examples: Rattus
Dentition in Mammals.

Module II

1) Physiology :
- Nutrition :
Types, Balanced diet, Nutritional disorders – Vitamin deficiency diseases, life style
diseases, role of fibres, nervous & neuronal control of digestion.
- Circulation :
Blood and its composition, blood group, blood clotting mechanisms, anticoagulants,
heart beat, pacemaker and conducting system of heart, blood pressure, pulse, common
cardiovascular diseases – ECG, angiogram, angioplasty.
- Respiration :
Gas exchange, respiratory pigments, Haemoglobin, Transport of respiratory gases –
Regulation of respiration - Respiratory disturbances – Apnoea, dyspnoea, hypoxia, hyper
and hypo capnia, asphyxia, CO poisoning, asthma
- Excretion :
Nephron – Structure, Urine formation, role of kidney in osmoregulation, composition
of urine, abnormal constituents of urine, renal disorders – nephritis, haematuria, renal
calculi, acidosis and alkalosis, Dialysis.
- Muscle Physiology :
Types of muscles, Ultrastructure of striated muscle fibre, Muscle proteins, Muscle
twitch, All or none law, Rigor mortis, Physiological and biochemical changes in muscle
- Nerve Physiology :
Structure of neuron, types; Synapse – types, nerve impulse propagation, Synaptic
transmission, Reflex action, Neurotransmitters, EEG. Nerve disorders – epilepsy,
Parkinson's diseases, Alzheimer's.
- Endocrinology :
Endocrine glands in man, hormones and disorders, mechanism of hormonal activity.
2 Biochemistry:
Biomolecules – Carbohydrates, Proteins, lipids and nucleic acids – structure and
classification with examples.
- Metabolism :
Carbohydrate– glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycolysis, Kreb's cycle Electron
Transport Chain.
- Lipid:
Beta Oxidation – Protein – deamination, transamination, Urea formation -
- Enzymes:
Mechanism of enzyme action, factors affecting enzyme action, Isoenzyme, Coenzyme,
enzyme inhibition and activation.
3. Developmental Biology
Theories :
Preformation, Epigenesis, Recapitulation and Germplasm.
- Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis, Typical egg and Sperm.
- Types of eggs.
Fertilization :
Agglutination, Amphimixis, Physiological and biochemical changes during and after
fertilization, Parthenogenesis, Artificial Parthenogenesis – Arrhenotoky, Thelytoky,
Obligatory and facultative; Significance of fertilization and Partheogenesis.
Cleavage :
Types, Morula, blastula (different types), fate maps. Gastrula – Morphogenetic
movements – concept of germ layers.
Cell differentiation :
Unipotency, Pleuri and totipotency, Gene action – Homeotic genes, Hox genes.
- Man – Implantation, Pregnancy, Placentation – Different types, function.
T eratology:
Definition, Causes of infection, drug and chemicals, metabolic imbalance, ionizing
radiation, malnutrition, auto immunization.
Experimental Embryology:
Spemann's constrtiction experiment, Organizer and embryonic Induction, IVF and embryo
transfer in man, cloning experiment in animals – Prenatal diagnosis – Amniocentesis,
Chorionic villus sampling, ultrasound scanning, stem cells – embryonic and adult – Stem
cell therapy.

Module – III

Development and Scope, Cell theory and its Modern version.
Types of Cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Ultra structure and functions of Plasma
membrane, Plasma membrane model – fluid mosaic, Functions,
Membrane transport, Cell communication - Modifications of Plasma
Cell organelles :
Nucleus - Structure, Interphase, nuclear envelope – functions.
Nucleolus - Structure, nucleolar organizer and functions.
Mitochondria - Structure and function, Oxidative phosphorylation.
Endoplasmic reticulum - Structure and function , types.
Lysosomes - Morphology, Polymorphism and functions.
Ribosomes - Different types – sub units, functions.
Centrioles and basal bodies – Structure and function.
Microbodies – Peroxisomes, glyoxisomes, funcions.
Cell division
Gene expression : Central dogma in Molecular Biology, One gene – one enzyme, one gene –
one polypeptide hypotheses.
Genetic code - Wobble hypothesis.
Contributions of Khorana, Nirenberg and associates, RNA polymerase, chaperones, protein
Gene regulation: Operon concept – Lac and Trp operon.
Bacterial Recombination : - Transformation, Conjugation and Transduction.
Human Genetics: Karyotyping, pedigree analysis, chromosomal anomalies in man
a) Autosomal (e.g. Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome)
b) Allosomal (e.g. Turners and Klinefelters syndrome)
Biochemical genetics:
Disorders Phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, albinism, tyrosinosis.
Biotechnology: -
Scope of Biotechnology, Recombinant DNA Technology, Techniques in gene cloning,
restriction endonucleases, ligases, major steps in cutting and joining of DNA, Probes, linkers.
Blotting Techniques
Southern, Northern and Western, DNA finger printing.
Genomic library
cDNA library, PCR, DNA sequencing
Human Genome Project
Hybridoma and monoclonal antibodies, transgenic organisms.
Practical applications
Medicine, agriculture, industry, pollution control, forensic & judiciary.
Potential hazards of Biotechnology.
Immunity : Definition, Types.
Immune System :
Primary and Secondary.
Antigens – Definition, types.
Antigen – antibody reactions.
Immune responses :
Allergy – Classification.
AIDS, Autoimmunity, Vaccines.
Survey of microbes – Viruses – Prions, Viroids, Bacteria, Protozoa.
– Applied microbiology in various fields.
Microbial diseases in man.
Module IV
Population ecology :- Properties of Population, emigration, immigration and migration, population
Community ecology :- Definition, Species diversity.
Wildlife conservation and Management
Threatened Species, Red data book, IUCN, WWF, CITES, Green Peace, Biosphere reserve,
National Park, Sanctuaries, forests in India, importance of mangroves, hotspots.
Ecosystem – Conservation and management.
Motivation, Learning – types, socio biology, pheromones, human pheromone.
– Geological time scale, fossils, fossil dating and significance of fossils.
– Genetic drift, genetic equilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg law, punctuated equilibrium.
– Speciation – Sympatric and allopatric; adaptive radiation.
Animal distribution – Different types, factors affecting distribution.
Zoogeographical realms – Brief account of each realm
Biogeographical classification of India – Eastern and Western Ghats.
Module V
Bacteria: Ultra structure, reproduction, genetic recombination, economic importances (Industrial uses,
food preservation and spoilage, biopesticides, biofertilizers, sewage treatment, nitrogen fixation and
symbiosis), staining techniques
Viruses: structure and reproduction – RNA and DNA viruses, bacteriophages, TMV and HIV
Fungi: General characteristics, reproduction and life cycle, heterothallism and parasexuality
Distinguishing characters of different classes of fungi representing the following genera:
Mastigomycotina (Pythium), Zygomycotina (Rhizopus), Ascomycotina (yeast), Basidiomycotina
(Agaricus) and Deuteromycotina (Cercospora)
Economic importances of fungi: industrial, medicinal, food and agriculture ( Biofertilizers and
Lichens: Economic and ecological importances, habit of crustose, foliose and fruticose lichens –
homomerous and heteromerous
General account and economic importance, structure, reproduction and lifecycle of Usnea.
Principles of plant pathology – biotic and abiotic causes of plant diseases
Classification of plant diseases on the basis of causative organisms and symptoms:
Transmission and spread of diseases – quarantine regulations – disease control measures
Study of the following diseases – causal agent, symptoms, etiology and control measures : Tapioca
mosaic disease, Citrus canker, Blast of paddy
Structure, reproduction and life cycle of the following types: Hepaticopsida (Riccia), Anthoceratopsida
(Anthoceros), Bryopsida (Fuaria)
Economical importances of bryophytes
Structure, reproduction, life cycle and affinities of following types: Psilotum (Psilopsida), Selaginella
(Lycopsida), Equisetum (Sphenopsida) and Marsilea (Pteropsida)
Heterospory and seed habit
Affinities of pteridophytes with bryophytes and gymnosperms
Economic importances of pteridophytes - Biofertilizer
General characters, structure (external and internal), reproduction and life cycle of following
gymnosperms – Cycas, Pinus, Gnetum
Origin and evolution of gymnosperms and their affinities with pteridophytes and angiosperms
Economic importances of gymnosperms
Objectives of palaeobotany, geological time scale, methods of fossilization, fossil pteridophyte
Module VI
Description of various types of leaves, stem, inflorescence (racemose, cymose and mixed type), fruit
(simple, multiple and aggregate) placentations (axile, marginal, free-central)
Seeds and seed dispersal
Objectives and importances of systematic
Systems of classification: Artificial (Linnaeus), Natural (Benthem and Hooker), and Phylogenetic
(Engler and Prantl)
Detailed study of Benthem and Hooker Classification
Principles and rules of plant nomenclature, ICBN
Taxonomic structure – hierarchial concept (Type, species, genus, family)
Recent trends in taxonomy: cytotaxonomy, chemotaxonomy, numerical taxonomy, molecular taxonomy
Taxonomic information resources: herbaria, botanical gardens, BSI, taxonomic literature: floras,
manuals and monographs
Study the following families: Annonaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae,
Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Acanthaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Liliaceae,
Orchidaceae, Poaceae
Botanical name, family, morphology of useful part of the following:
Cereals: Wheat, ragi
Pulses: Black gram, Bengal gram
Sugar: Sugar cane
Spices: Cardamom, black pepper, nutmeg
Tubers: Tapioca
Fibre: Coir, cotton, jute
Latex: Rubber
Beverages: Coffee
Medicinal: Adhatoda, Catheranthus, Rauvolfia, Phyllanthus, Neem
Typical structure of a plant cell
Non-living inclusions of plant cells – cystolith, raphides, aleuron grains, starch grains
Tissues: Meristematic, permanent and complex tissues
Roots and shoot apex organization
Primary and secondary structure of root, stem (monocot and dicot)
Anatomy of monocot and dicot leaf
Stomata – structure – dicot and monocot
Nodal anatomy
Structure of secondary wood – phellem, phellogen and phelloderm, lenticels and annual rings
Anomalous secondary growth – Boerhaavia, Bignonia and Dracaena
Microsporogenesis: Development of microsporangia, and male gametophyte
Megasporogenesis: Development of megasporangia and female gametophyte
Types of ovules: orthotropous, anatropous, campilotropous
Fertilization and endosperm formation
Endosperm formation: nuclear, cellular and helobial
Embryo – dicot and monocot embryo, polyembryony, apomixes, apospory and parthenocarpy
Objectives of plant breeding
Breeding techniques and achievements
Introduction and acclimatization
Selection - pure line selection, mass selection and clonal selection
Heterosis and inbreeding depression
Polyploidy breeding
Mutation breeding
Plant Propagation methods: Cutting, Budding, Grafting and Layering

Module VII

Water in relation to plants: Water potential, diffusion, osmosis, DPD, turgor pressure, osmotic pressure,
exosmosis, endosmosis, plasmolysis
Transpiration: Mechanism of guard cell movement, role of K ions, anti-transpirants
Mechanisms of water absorption, passive and active
Translocation of water: transpiration pull
Water stress and physiological consequences
Mineral nutrition – essential and non-essential elements and their role in growth and development
Mechanism of mineral absorption- active, passive and fecilitated
Photosynthesis: chloroplast as photosynthetic apparatus, light phase, cyclic and non-cyclic
photophosphorylation, dark reaction, C3, C4 and CAM path ways, photorespiration
Translocation of photosynthates: phloem transport, phloem loading and un-loading
Growth and Development : Concept of hormone and growth regulators on plant, hormones and their
action: auxins, GA, cytokinines, ABA, ethylene
Photoperiodism, and vernalization
Photomorphogenesis, phototropism, gavitropism,
Nyctinastic, Seismonastic movement
Biological nitrogen fixation, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, biochemistry of nitrogen fixation and genetics
of nitrogen fixation
Biosynthesis of amino acids, reductive amination and transammination, GS/GOGAT pathways
Oxidation of fatty acids, alpha and beta oxidation of fatty acids, cellular respiration of proteins
Chromosomes, morphology, telomere, satellite, primary and secondary constrictions, nuclear organizer,
chromosome banding, heterochromatic and euchromatic, nucleosomes, polytene and lampbrush
chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations – deletion, duplication, inversion and translocation
Numerical aberrations: anueploidy and euploidy
Cell cycle: mitosis and meiosis, significances of meiosis
Mendel’s experiments, symbols, terminology, Mendalian laws, Monohybrid cross, Dihybrid cross,
backcross, Test cross, Modified Mendelian ratios inter actions of genes, epistasis, Complementary
genes, Inhibitary genes, quantitative inheritance
Multiple alleles- Self sterility in nicotiana
Linkage and crossing over- 2 point and 3 point crosses, Linkage maps, Interference and co-incidence
Sex determination and Sex linked inheritance
XX-XY type, XX- XO type, Sex determination plants, criss cross inheritance, Sex limited and sex
influenced traits
Extra nuclear inheritance plastid inheritance in mirabilis, coiling of shells in snails
Mutation- Types, Mutagens, Physical and Chemical, Molecular basis of Mutations, transitions,
transversion, frameshift
Nucleic acids- DNA, RNA – Evidence of DNA as genetic material DNA structure Watson and Cricks
model, types of DNA, A,B,Z, RNA structure types (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)
DNA replication, enzymology of DNA replication, semi conservative mode, Meselon and Stahls
experiments, molecular mechanism of replication
Gene Expression- Genetic Code, transcription in Prokaryote and Eykaryote
Post transcriptional modifications, translation, teminism
Molecules and origin of lives, evolution of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells, Mitochondrial and
endosymbiotic theory, Chloroplast and endosymbiotic theory.
Theories on origin and evolution of species, Lamarkism, Darwinism, Weismann, Devries, Neo


Intorduction- Basic principles and concepts of ecology and environment – Interdisciplinary approach-
Scope and relevance ot society and human environment. Need for public awareness- Ecosystem-
Definition, ecosystems- concept of an ecosystem – structure and function of an ecosystem. A) Abiotic
factors: Climate shapes the character of ecosystem- Edaphic factors- B) Biotic factors-, food chain
Food web and ecological pyramids. Biogeochemical cycle: Gaseous-Carbon, Oxygen & Nitrogen.
Hydrological- Water-Ecological succession- definition, types, causes of succession, process of
succession. Hydrosere and Lithosere. Ecological groups of plants: Hydrophytes, Xerophytes,
Halophytes, Epiphytes and Parasites (brief account only)
Natural resources
Renewable and non-renewable resources. Natural resources and associated problem. Forest resourcesdeforestation,
aforestation, - conservation- protection forestry-chipko movement- productioncommercial
forestry-social forestry, Agroforestry- timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on
forest, and tribal people-mineral resources- Environmental effects of extracting and using mineral
resources- Water resources-use and overuse of surface water and ground water-floods, droughts- Food
resources –World food problems- Energy resources.
Social issues and the environment
Environmental pollution a) Definition, causes-effects and control measures. Types of pollution- Soil,
Air, Water, Solid wastes-management- radioactive, noise & thermal pollution. Role of an individual in
prevention of pollution. Pollution case studies. Role of pollution control board- Urban problems related
to energy. Water conservation- Rain water harvesting and water shed management. Resettlement and
rehabilitation of people- its problems and concerns. Environmental ethics: issues and possible
solutions- Climate change and Global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents-
Wasteland reclamation, Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation- Public awareness-
Human population and environment- Population growth, variation among nations. Population
explosion- Family welfare program. Environment and human health: Human rights- The Ecological
crisis- industrialization- the human transformation of the earth- human activity is placing the biosphere
under increasing stress growth of the world economy- urbanization- the vulnerable planet. World Earth
summits and protocols- Rio, Kyoto. Johannesberg. The failure of ecological reforms-
Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity-Concepts of biodiversity- Types of biodiversity- biodiversity in India. India as mega
diversity nation- hotsposts of biodiversity, threats to biodiversity- Conservation of biodiversity- The
conservation strategies are multidimensional- National parks, wildlife sanctuaries.
Plant Tissue culture
Plant Tissue Culture- History, Principle – Totipotency, differentiation, dedifferentiation,
redifferentiation. Tissue culture laboratory, Media- MS medium composition, Preparation, Sterilization
techniques, Ex-plant selection, sterilization and Inoculation. Types of culture- Meristem culture, Organ
culture; Sterilization and Inoculation.
Recombinant DNA and Molecular cloning-
Cloning vectors – Plasmids-Bacteriophages PBR322, PUC, phage. Artificail chromosome vectors-
BAC, YAC, Shuttle vectors. Consruction of recombinant DNA methods.
Gene transfer technique- Vector method. Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer- Ti and Ri Plasmids;
Direct DNA uptake- Electroporation – shot gun method-microinjection, lipofection.. Herbicide
Resistance- drought resistance- enrichment of storage protein , Improvement of the nutritional quality
of seeds.
Biotechnology and Bio ethics- Gene therapy
GMOs food safety, environmental and Biosafety issues, Concerns, Role of multi national companies in
biotechnology- Agribusiness- Golden Rice, Terminator Genes. Economical and Legal issue. Bio Ethics-
Bioinformatics- Introduction, scope and fields of application.
Major databases in Bioinformatics:
Nucleotide sequence databases-EMBL, DDBJ, Genbank; Protein sequence databases swiss Prot, PIR,
Database Search Engines- Entrez at NCBI of USA, SRS at EBI of England. Sequence Similarity
Pair wise sequence alignment- BLAST, FASTA; Multiple sequence alignment-CLUSTALW,
Homology modeling of protein, structure prediction- Protein Data Bank. Similarity search.
Microarrays, Proteomics, Genomics and Application of bioinformatics.
Microtechnique- Principles of Microscopy, micrometry, Killing and fixing, Dehydration, Embedding,
Staining, Clearing, Mounting media, wholemount, maceration.
Biostatistics- Measures of Central tendency- Arithmetic Mean, Median, Mode; Measures of
Dispersion- Range, Standard Deviation, Standard Error; Correlation and Regression, Analysis of
variance ANOVA; Application of Biostatistics.
Design of Experiment- Data collection, representation and interpretation, observation direct and
indirect observations, controlled and uncontrolled observations, Human and machine observations.

website security