HSA Physical Science



Module I : Renaissance and freedom movement
Module II: General Knowledge and current affairs
Module III: Methodology of teaching the subject

♦ History/conceptual development. Need and Significance, Meaning Nature
and Scope of the Subject.

♦ Correlation with other subjects and life situations.

♦ Aims, Objectives, and Values of Teaching - Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives - Old and revised

♦ Pedagogic analysis- Need, Significance and Principles.

♦ Planning of instruction at Secondary level- Need and importance.
Psychological bases of Teaching the subject - Implications of Piaget,
Bruner, Gagne, Vygotsky, Ausubel and Gardener - Individual difference,
Motivation, Maxims of teaching.

♦ Methods and Strategies of teaching the subject- Models of Teaching,
Techniques of individualising instruction.

♦ Curriculum - Definition, Principles, Modern trends and organizational
approaches, Curriculum reforms - NCF/KCF.

♦ Instructional resources- Laboratory, Library, Club, Museum- Visual and
Audio-Visual aids - Community based resources - e-resources - Text
book, Work book and Hand book.

♦ Assessment; Evaluation- Concepts, Purpose, Types, Principles,
Modern techniques - CCE and Grading- Tools and techniques -
Qualities of a good test - Types of test items- Evaluation of projects,
Seminars and Assignments - Achievement test, Diagnostic test –
Construction, Characteristics, interpretation and remediation.

♦ Teacher - Qualities and Competencies - different roles - Personal
Qualities - Essential teaching skills - Microteaching - Action research.



Module I

Particle dynamics-Newton’s laws of motion, rotational dynamics, conservation laws- Linear
momentum, angular momentum, energy. Simple harmonic motion, damped and forced
oscillations, wave motion-progressive waves, super position of waves, Doppler effect.
Frames of reference, special theory of relativity
Elasticity-Young’s modulus, rigidity modulus, bulk modulus, surface tension, viscosity.

Module II

Electrostatics, transient current, current electricity, electromagnetic induction, alternating
current, magnetic properties of materials.
Semiconductor physics- diodes, transistors, amplifiers, oscillators, logic gates.

Module III

Reflection, refraction, dispersion, interference, diffraction, scattering, polarization, fibre
optics, lasers, basic idea of spectroscopy.
Heat and thermodynamics-conduction, convection, radiation,laws of thermodynamics,
Carnot engine, entropy.
Statistical distribution-ensemble, phase space, Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics.

Module IV

Bohr atom model, vector atom model, hydrogen spectra, nuclear structure and properties,
radio activity, nuclear fission and fusion, elementary particles.
Crystal structure, crystal symmetry, miller indices, brevais lattice, Bragg’s law, packing
fraction, super conductivity.
Wave nature of matter, uncertainty principle, postulates of wave mechanics, Schrodinger

Module V

Eigen functions and Eigen values -Postulates of quantum mechanics Time Schrödinger wave
equation - Application to particle in a one dimensional box – Normalization of wave
functions - Application of Schrödinger wave equation to hydrogen atom – Conversion of
cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates - Radial and angular functions (mention only) –
Orbitals and concept of Quantum numbers
Energy levels in molecules - Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Rotational, vibrational,
Raman, Electronic and NMR spectroscopy: Basic Principles and applications. Elements of
symmetry of molecules
Amorphous and crystalline solids , Defects in crystals - Stoichiometric and non
stoichiometric defects . Ideal and non ideal solutions -Henry's law , Raoult's law - Dilute
solutions - Colligative properties - Abnormal molecular mass – Van’t Hoff factor.
Solubility product and common ion effect, precipitation of cations , Principles of volumetric
analysis, Theories of indicators.
Principles and applications of Column chromatography, Paper chromatography, Thin layer
chromatography, Ion exchange chromatography, - Rf values.
Structure and applications of silicones, silicates and zeolites. Cement , Glass , Inorganic
fertilizers , Rocket propellants (Brief study)
Types of pollution: Air and water. Pollutants , Control of air and water pollution

Module VI

Atom Models– Planck’s quantum Theory - Photoelectric effect -de Broglie's relation – Dual
nature of matter and radiation, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Atomic orbitals and
Quantum numbers - Pauling’s Exclusion principle - Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity -
Aufbau’s principle – Electronic configuration of atoms.
Ionic bond – Properties - Born-Lande equation (derivation not expected) – Born-Haber cycle
– Fajan's rules and its applications. Covalent bond - Valence bond theory–VSEPR Theory -
Concept of Hybridisation –-Types: sp, sp2, sp3, dsp2, sp3d, d2sp3,sp3d2 - Explanation with
simple examples .Molecular Orbital Theory – LCAO - Bonding and anti bonding molecular
orbitals - Bond order. Theories of Metallic bonding: Free electron theory, valence bond
theory and band theory (Basics concepts only).Hydrogen bond – Intra and inter molecular
hydrogen bond.
Periodic laws, – Periodic properties – Electronegativity scales (Pauling and Mullikan scales)
– Effective nuclear charge – Slater rule – Diagonal relationship
Representative and Transition Elements – General Characteristics, preparation and properties
of simple compounds. Lanthanides and actinides
Metals: Occurrence, Concentration of ores, Refining of metals, Extractive metallurgy of Al,
Fe, Ni, Cu and Ti – Classification of steel, hardening of steel.
Isomerism in coordination compounds - Werner’s theory -EAN rule - Valence bond theory -
Crystal filed theory - Splitting of d-orbitals in octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar
complexes –Applications
Organometallic Compounds: Definition, Classification and Applications
Radioactivity –Natural and artificial, Nuclear stability – N/P ratio –Nuclear forces –Half life
period – Gieger Nuttal rule –Disintegration series – Transmutation , Nuclear fission and
Nuclear fusion –Application of radioactive isotopes

Module VII

Postulates of kinetic theory of gases - Collision number.
First law of thermodynamics – Joule-Thomson effect - Liquefaction of gases – Inversion
temperature. Second law of thermodynamics - Concept of entropy - Entropy as criteria of
spontaneity. Free energy functions - Hess’s law, Bond energies. Third law of
Law of mass action - Law of chemical equilibrium - Equilibrium constant in terms of
concentration, partial pressure and mole fractions Van't Hoff’s equation - Homogeneous and
heterogeneous equilibria - Le Chatelier’s Principle and its applications.
Rate of a reaction - Factors influencing the rate of a reaction - Rate law - Order and
molecularity - Rate constants for first, second, third and zero order reactions - half life period
for first order reaction- Arrhenius equation - Collision theory - Transition state theory -
Homogeneous and heterogenous catalysis - Enzyme catalysis
Photosynthesis - Simple Photochemical reactions – Fluorescence – Phosphorescence
Chemisorption and physisorption - Factors affecting adsorption - Adsorption isotherms
Classification , Preparation, purification and properties of colloids, Protective colloids - Gold
number - Applications of colloids.
Phase Equilibria: Components and degrees of freedom - One component and two component
systems (Simple cases only)
Faraday's laws, Kohlrausch’s law - Arrhenius theory, Ostwald’s dilution law – Debye -
Huckel - Onsager's equations for strong electrolytes, Galvanic cells, electrochemical series -
Nernst equation

Module VIII

Uniqueness of Carbon , Classification of organic compounds - Hybridization of carbon in
organic compounds. Structural and Stereoisomerism, Baeyer strain theory, Conformation and
configuration - Specific rotation – Chirality, Enantiomers, Diastereomers– Racemic mixture -
Resolution methods
Inductive effect, Mesomeric effect, Hyperconjugation and Electromeric effect - Steric effect.
organic reactions: Substitution, Addition, Elimination and Rearrangement . Mechanisms of
SN1, SN2, E1 & E2
Nomenclature of organic compounds– Preparation and properties of alkanes, alkenes,
alkynes, alkyl halides, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids & their derivatives.
Aromaticity, Huckel's rule - Structure and stability of benzene, Electrophilic substitution
reactions in benzene with mechanisms
Grignard reagent-Preparation and synthetic applications
Classification of polymers, preparation and applications of important polymers,
biodegradable polymers
Biomolecules: Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins (Classifications with
examples, applications/functions)



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